Water and Sanitation Local Cooperation's RSIP

 2022-04-22   Resilience and Service Improvement Plan for Sa’ada Water and Sanitation Local Corporation

Water and Sanitation Local Cooperation's RSIP

Annotated content page RSIP(Note for the reader; this annotated content page has been developed to facilitate the development of the Resilience and Service Improvement Plan (RSIP) report

1 Summary of the plan

This section provides a brief summary of the main problems and actions that were identified to enhance the performance of the utility and improve its resilience. The summary presents the main problems and solutions that have been identified related to the financial, administrative and technical performance, whilst also looking at possible environmental and man-made threats (Table 1).This section visualizes a brief summery for the main problems and procedures that were identified to enhance the performance of the utilities and improve its resilience plan. The summery also demonstrates main problems and the optimal solutions that have been identified regarding Financial, administrative and technical performance. It also highlights the possible environmental and humanitarian threats.

Table 1 Summary of main problems, proposed actions and time frame

The main problems and proposed actions are briefly presented below under three* main subheadings:

Financial, administrative and consumer related risks

Risk and intervention 1: …….. (just the name or a brief explanation of the problem; followed by the proposed intervention in a little more detail than indicated in the table)

Risk and intervention 2: …..

Risk and intervention 3: ……

Technical risks

Risk and intervention 1: …….

Risk and intervention 2: ……..

Risk and intervention 3: …….

This summery will very much help sharing the planned activities with different actors.

#Priority RiskRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The lack of oil derivatives and its high prices> 10 Intolerable risk
2Water tariff do not cover production cost> 10 Intolerable risk
3Indebtedness increased due to the war and the interruption of salaries, as well as the rise in government indebtedness> 10 Intolerable risk
4Lack of qualified staff and permanent, qualified staff leaving the LC> 10 Intolerable risk
5Reducing support from international organizations and reducing government support significantly> 10 Intolerable risk
6Lack of information systems such as (complaints - public service - PIIS - GIS)> 10 Intolerable risk
7Absence of an approved staff description and an updated and approved organizational chart and structure(7 – 10) High risk
8Iron percentage increment in five working wellsintolerable risk
9Continuous damages and detrition for pumpsintolerable risk
10Decreasing of water levels in LC wells due to illegal wells excavation beside LC wells by farmers (annual water level decreasing is 4 to 6 m)intolerable risk
11There is no availability of spare part and networks maintenance material in LC stores (pumps , control plates, pipes, valves, ......etc)intolerable risk
12Poor equality of material uses in houses connections done by stockholders which extended from the water meters to the house, repeated damages and contamination with risk of contamination from damage of old part of the network (the percent of old network is 19% )intolerable risk
13Possibility of groundwater basin contamination due to the absence of swage network and swage treatment plantintolerable risk
14Due to no waste water treatment plant the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may cuases contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.intolerable risk
15Due to no waste water networks the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may be causes contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.intolerable risk

2 Introduction

The resilience and service improvement plan (RSIP) for the water utility ……….. was developed in ….., by a small team of .. persons (Annex 1). It presents an overview of the water supply and sewerage system, its main components, and the main problems related to the performance of the organization and the risks that have been identified related to the water quality, quantity and continuity of the water supply waste water services. It outlines the envisaged actions that have been prioritised to be implemented to enhance performance and improve resilience to respond to natural and manmade disasters. It includes a time frame, an indication of responsible actors, and provides a brief description of the monitoring and review process that is envisaged. The plan also looks at the risks related to the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 virus.

Revise text: Whereas there is no indication of transmission of this virus through water supply, the pandemic may cause serious disruptions in system operations This may include shortage of staff, power disruptions, and shortages of chemicals and other supplies, caused for example by Government directives. Protecting the health and safety of employees needs to be emphasized in the risk mitigation plan to ensure that essential functions can be maintained..

The RSIP was approved by …. on …. (date), and will be reviewed on …. (date)

Table 2. Basic information about the utility and its customers

This section provides basic information of the water utility and its customers (Table 2)

Name of the utilitySa’adah Local Corporation
City/GovernorateSa’adah
City Population135,329
Number of customers (water supply / wastewater)7,349
Water supply/ Waste water coverage65%
How many internally displaced persons (IDP) are served by the system (and % of IDP in area)14,698
Per capita water demand (l/c/d)60
Average water demand (m3/day)Untitled5,291
Average water production (m3/day)4,215
Average water volume billed (m3/day)3,434
Per capita consumption (l/c/d), (billed)39
Operating hours/day and day/week14hrs/day & ( 3days/ week in some areas)
Main Power sourceGenerators + Solar Powers
Number of staff63
Non-revenue water (NRW) (%)18.53%
Average volume of waste water produced (m3/day)No Sewerage System
Average volume of waste water treated (m3/day)No Waste wáter treatment plant

Table 3a. Financial performance of the water branch of the utility

Financial performance of the water branch of the utility

Rate revenues(metered) per year440.191
Income from flat rates (not metered) per year25,194
Income from commercial customers per year105,998
Income from public taps, if any per year229,562
Subsidy (government, municipality) per year-
Other income (specify) per year805,436
Total annual income885,505
Total annual expenditures80%
Collection efficiency (payment received/billed amount/year)65%
Annual cost recovery from users (income from users /expenditures)312
Average cost of water production and distribution (per m3)-

Table 3b. Financial performance of the waste water branch

Table 3b. Financial performance of the waste water branch (This table only need to be included if cost for water and sanitation are available separately)

Income from waste water (WW) charges to users per year-
Income from WW charges to commercial customers per year-
Subsidy (government, municipality) per year-
Other income (specify) per year-
Total annual income-
Total annual expenditures-
Collection efficiency (payment received/billed amount/year)-
Annual cost recovery from users (income from users /expenditures)-
Average cost of waste water discharge and treatment (per m3)-

Table 4. Main cost items for the water and waste water (cost in $ per year) (2019)

Table 4. Main cost items for the water and waste water (cost in $ per year)

Staff cost for water supply 255.285
Staff cost for waste water
Staff cost-Total cost per year255.285
Transport cost (vehicles etc.) for water supply 47.956
Transport cost (vehicles etc.) for waste water
Transport cost (vehicles etc.)-Total cost per year47.956
Energy cost for water supply -
Energy cost for waste water -
Energy cost (also includes maintenance cost of all transport) - Total cost per year-
Chemicals costs for water supply-
Chemicals costs for waste water -
Chemicals costs-Total cost per year-
Materials costs for water supply 285,138
Materials costs for waste water -
Materials costs -Total cost per year285,138
Contracts for larger repairs for water supply244,489
Contracts for larger repairs for waste water -
Contracts for larger repairs -Total cost per year244,489
Others for water supply52,638
Others for waste water -
Others-Total cost per year52,638
Total annual cost for water supply885,506
Total annual cost for waste water -
Total annual cost- Total cost per year885,506
The cost items include the monetary value of the in-kind contributions the utility receives; The table does not include cost related to system expansion If cost for water and waste water cannot be separated then just fill the last column-

Table 5 Water balance

One key tool to assess the situation in the utility is the water balance (Table 5). Filling out the water balance will give an indication of the performance of the utility in terms of water supply. On average in 2019 a volume of …. m3 is put into supply and on average a volume of …. m3 is being billed to customers. A more detailed estimate of the water balance is presented in Table 5.

This overview only concerns the water loss as defined by IWA, which is about the water that is produced and put into supply. In addition however water may be ‘lost’ in the intake structure and in the transmission main to the water treatment plant, (or water tank with disinfection), the treatment process (backwash) and the transmission to water storage tanks.

Authorized consumption m3 -
Authorized consumption Billed m3 1253410 m3
Authorized consumption Billed metered Volume m31253410 m3
Authorized consumption Billed unmetered Volume m3-
Authorized consumption Billed Unpaid metered (partly delayed payment)Volume m3-
Authorized consumption Billed Unpaid unmetered Volume m3-
Authorized consumption unbilled Volume m3285065 m3
Authorized consumption unbilled metered Volume m357,437
Authorized consumption unbilled unmetered m3-
Water losses m3-
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) m3183,347
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) - Metering inaccuracies volume m357,437
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) - Unauthorized consumption (illegal connections)volume m3125,910
Water losses Real losses volume m3381,439
Water losses Real losses Leakages in storage reservoirs, distribution mains and service lines volume m3-
Water losses-Real losses -Overflow of water tanks, flushing of pipes volume m3381,439
Total Revenue water-Authorized\consumption1253410
Total non revenue water m3567,706

Table 6 Main financial and organizational problems and risks

In this section the main financial and organizational problems are being presented that may jeopardize the performance and the resilience of the utility. Hazardous events in this area may relate to financing, administration and customer relationships (Table 6). The main hazardous events have to be identified and the risks have to be assessed to be able to prioritize action.

Problems may include a high level of non-revenue water. It may be this is already known in more detail (high water physical water loss, many illegal connections, and water meter inaccuracies). It may also be a more general problem of water tariffs that are not covering the cost, a large number of displaced persons with limited resources, or because other financial resources such as support from external organizations may be at risk.

Administrative problems may include: high staff turnover, weak staff regulations, administrative difficulties such as meter reading, inaccurate customer data base, as well as not following up on customer complaints.

#Hazardous event (and how the problem may affect service provision or the utility) HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The lack of oil derivatives and its high pricesIS = interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
2Water tariff do not cover production costIS = interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
3Indebtedness increased due to the war and the interruption of salaries, as well as the rise in government indebtednessIS = interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
4Lack of qualified staff and permanent, qualified staff leaving the LCRP = Reduced Performance of the system and/or the organization5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
5Reducing support from international organizations and reducing government support significantlyIS,LF= interruption in supply,lack of finance to pay staff and suppliers5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
6Lack of information systems such as (complaints - public service - PIIS - GIS)RP = Reduced Performance of the system and/or the organization5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
7Absence of an approved staff description and an updated and approved organizational chart and structureRP = Reduced Performance of the system and/or the organization 3 = Serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time(7 – 10) High risk

3 Review of risks in the water supply system

This section provides an overview of the system including some key characteristics (Table 7), a map with the system components (Figure 1) and an overview of the main risks that have been identified (Table 8). These risks may relate to different types of hazards including the deterioration of the biological, chemical or physical water quality, problems related to the availability of water, interruption of water distribution. The information presented in this chapter is based on the detailed assessment of each component of the water system presented in Annex 2.

Table 7. Basic information about the water supply system

This section provides an overview of the system including some key characteristics (Table 7), a map with the system components (Figure 1) and an overview of the main risks that have been identified (Table 8). These risks may relate to different types of hazards including the deterioration of the biological, chemical or physical water quality, problems related to the availability of water, interruption of water distribution. The information presented in this chapter is based on the detailed assessment of each component of the water system presented in Annex 2.

Type of water source(s)Groundwater
Number of boreholes and capacity (l/s)13 wells with a productivity (84 l/sec) Average productivity per well (6.50 litters/sec)
Depth of boreholes (range)330m
Age (average and range)20 years from (1990-2020)
Average water production (m3/day)4,215
Type of water treatmentChlorination dosing units
Design capacity (m3/day)NA
Transmission lines + pumping mains (km)8.50 km
Distribution system (service connections) (km)173 km
Water storage tanks (number& total capacity in m3)8 tanks with a total capacity of 1,500 m3
Number of operating water pumps14 hours/day average
Spare pumpsNon
Number of house connections (W &WW)7,349
Part of house connections with meters (%)100%
Number of public, social and utility standpoints0
Operating hours/day and day/week14 hours / day average & three days / week
Main Power sourceElectric generators and solar energy systems
Number of bulk water meters13
Non-revenue water (NRW)18.53%
Commercial losses (%) of NRW30%
Leakage (%) of NRW70% of the waste
Average operating pressure (m) and range80 meters
Number of pipe bursts (No/km/year)2196 Explosion / year repaired
Specific damages caused by the warThe building of the main operating station in Talmas was completely destroyed, with the destruction of all its electric generators, including 3 generators with a capacity of 1380 KW, and the destruction of a diesel tank with a capacity of 30,000 liters, with the destruction of the building of the substation in Qahza, and the destruction of the electric generator with a capacity of KW320 with its accessories diesel tank with a capacity of 5000 liters and maintenance equipment.
Schematic drawing of the system and its main components

Table 8. Summary of important hazards and risks in the components of the water system

Hazard type: M = microbial, C = chemical, P = physical, IS = interruption in supply.

Effect: 1 = minimal effect; 3 = serious impact, 5 = very serious impact

Frequency: Rare (1) < 1% of the time, cases, connections, area; Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time, cases, connections, area; Likely (3) > 20% of the time, cases, connections, area

Risk levels (frequency x effect): low risk < 3; medium risk 3 – 6; high risk 7 – 10; intolerable risk > 10

#Priority Risk HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Iron percentage increment in five working wellsC = Chemical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
2Continuous damages and detrition for pumps M = Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
3Decreasing of water levels in LC wells due to illegal wells excavation beside LC wells by farmers (annual water level decreasing is 4 to 6 m) M = Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
4There is no availability of spare part and networks maintenance material in LC stores (pumps , control plates, pipes, valves, ......etc)P,IS =Physical, Interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
5Poor equality of material uses in houses connections done by stockholders which extended from the water meters to the house, repeated damages and contamination with risk of contamination from damage of old part of the network (the percent of old network is 19% )M,P= Microbial ,Physical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
6Possibility of groundwater basin contamination due to the absence of swage network and swage treatment plantIS,M,C= Interruption in supply, Microbial ,Chemical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk

Overview of the water supply system

Figure 1. Overview of the water supply system

4 Waste water related problems

In this section the proposed actions to improve performance and enhance resilience are presented in some detail. The activities for each main risk are presented in a separate table (29 etc., ……)

Table 9. Basic information about the waste water system

This section provides an overview of the sewer system and waste water treatment plants, including some key characteristics (Table 9) and a map with the system components (Figure 2).


Name-
Average annual flow (m3/year)-
Type of waste water treatment (and age)-
Annual average design flow (m3/year)-
Length of sewerage system (km) -
Design organic load (BOD)-
Actual inlet organic load (BOD)-
Efficiency: outflow organic load (BOD)-
Age of distribution system (average and range)-
Number of service connections-
Number of sewer left stations-
Operating hours/day-
Main power source-
Number of waste water overflow points4788 inform
Specific damages caused by the war-

​Table 10. Summary of important hazards and risks related to waste water​

Table 10 presents the main hazardous events and risks that have been identified. These risks may relate to different types of events including blockage of sewers causing contamination of housing areas, deterioration of the infrastructure, pumping problems, interruption or malfunctioning of the treatment system generating odour problems or fly nuisance but also low connection ratio in areas where onsite systems are causing problems. If wastewater management and financing is separated from the management of the water supply system, than risks may also include financing and staff problems. The resulting hazards may include contamination of the service area and of downstream water sources which may contribute to the spread of disease including for example cholera. In case a considerable number of risks exist a good option to consider is to present a more detailed analysis in an annex and just summarise the situation in Table 10.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may arise) HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Due to no waste water treatment plant the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may cuases contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.CS,GS, PF, OP=Contamination service area,Groundwater contamination، Proliferation of flies،Odour problems ,5= very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
2Due to no waste water networks the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may be causes contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.CS,GS, PF, OP=Contamination service area,Groundwater contamination، Proliferation of flies،Odour problems ,5= very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk

The wastewater treatment system components

Figure 3: Picture of the basin area (watershed)

5 Overview of the main risks and possible control measures

Table 11. Effect of control measures on important risk

In this section the main risks that were identified in chapter 2, 3, and 4 are listed (Table 11). For some of these the utility may already have put already control measures or other interventions in place that may reduce the risk if effective or not. This needs to be taken into account in the final priority setting related to the different risks that were established in section 2, 3, and 4. To clarify this issue we can look at some examples. A possible hazardous event may be that a borehole gets contaminated because of inflow of water from the surface due to poor protection of the well head. Flooding may happen a few times a year (score 3 likely) and impact is serious (3) so risk is 9. The utility may have arranged for disinfecting wells after flooding, but this may not prevent water draining into the well when it rains. So the control measure does not seem effective. Hence despite the control measure the risk does remain 9. Another hazardous event may be experienced staff leaving the utility. A control measure that may have been put in place is to develop standard operating procedures so new staff knows what to do, but this may not be sufficient to overcome the lack of experience. So in that case the risk still may be high and this then requires a more in-depth analysis of the causes of experienced staff leaving

#ComponentPriority RiskExisting control measure (mitigation in place)TimeeffectRisk remaining taking with control measure
1F= FinanceThe lack of oil derivatives and their high pricesInstalling solar energy systems for the rest of the operating wells and reducing operating hours with diesel, with an adjustment to the distribution schedule2 YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
2F= FinanceThe Water tariff does not cover the water production cost.The tariff for the commercial group is raised by 20%, and the tariff for other groups has not been increased6 MonthSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
3F= FinanceIndebtedness increased due to the war and the interruption of salaries, as well as the rise in government indebtednessAddressing the Ministry of Finance for the indebtedness of government offices to reverse it from their credits to the utility's accountOne YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
4F= FinanceThe reduction of support international organizations and significantly reduction of government supportSeveral meetings were held with donor organizations to discuss the situation and obtain some unconfirmed promisesOne YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
5ADM = Administration and customer relationsLack of qualified staff and permanent, qualified staff leaving the LCSeveral meetings were held with donor organizations to discuss the situation and obtain some unconfirmed promisesOne YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
6F= FinanceThe high percentage of iron in the wells in five working wellsConducting an integrated study for the water supply, installation and operation of 5 iron removal treatment units and presenting it to donor organizations to finance the projectOne YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
7DB = Distribution SystemFrequent failure and deterioration of pumpsConducting a study for the type of pumps that are installed and its specifications and sorting them according to previous reports of the good pump type that serves years and a longer period, and the bad type that only serves for a short period. And making a need list for submersible pumps and motors with excellent specifications and presenting it to the donor organizations to finance their provision. And rehabilitation some of the existing pumps, which are still in a good condition. Also, financing a training courses for technical teams specialized in the maintenance of wells and submersible pumps, and an explanation for them about the safeand correct ways to install pumps with efficiency and quality.One YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
8SI = Source/IntakeThe water level has fallen as a result of random digging by farmers near institution water wells, a drop of 4 to 6 meters per year.Issuing decisions from the Sa’ada Basin Committee to prevent random drilling and creating a mechanism to regulate the withdrawal of water from the basin by the wells already owned for farmers and obliging them to install water production meters at each well, with the determination of the water amount for each farmer, where does not exceed it. Presenting the decisions of the Basin Committee to the Ministry of Water and Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture for approval and to approve the decisions And circulate this obligating and its implementation and commitment to activating and applying the law with coordination from the Water Resources Authority and the relevant authorities to make water barriers and earth bonds to improve the recharge of the water basin that serves the LC’s wells1-2 YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
9WC = Water CatchmentThe materials used in the household connections is wear installed by the citizens from the water meter to the house, the recurrence of explosions and the possibility of pollution with the risk of contamination repeated explosions in the old and dilapidated part of the water network (the percentage of the old part of the entire water network is 19%)Communication with donor organizations to obtain support and funding to replace the distribution network for unhealthy and unsafe household connections with a new, healthy and safe network, with the rehabilitation of the old water network and dilapidated the old part in the Salam area and the main street1-2 YearNo = No effect>10 Very high risk
10TR = TreatmentPossibility of contamination of the water basin due to the absence of a sewage network treatment plant andContinuing communication with donor organizations and friendly donor countries to obtain funding for the implementation of a sewage network and treatment plant in the city of Saadah1-2 YearSlight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
11TR = TreatmentThe absence of a sewage treatment plant leads to emptying sewage transported through overflowing sewage suction trucks and emptying it into random areas, which may cause pollution of the water basin and the spreading of epidemics and diseases.After completing the study, plans, designs, bills of quantities and specifications for the establishment of a wastewater treatment plant for the city of Saada. The study was conducted by the Jordanian company Engicon, funded by UNICEF. The proposed intervention will be the continuation to communicate with donor organizations and friendly donor countries to obtain fund for the implementation of a sewage treatment plant in the city of Saadah. We also hope from the Dutch MitaMita organization to support the LC by financing the implementation of this project or coordinating from its part with the Dutch government to support and finance the project.1-2 YearNo = No effect>10 Very high risk

6. Action plan for prioritised resilience risks

Table 12. Summary of action plan for prioritised risks related to the finance and administration

This section presents an action plan for the prioritised performance and resilience risks that relate to financing, organization, administration, and customer relations (Table 12). Some lower priority actions may also be included in the table if they are very easy to overcome at low or no cost. For the actions, it is essential to take a gender sensitive approach and take into account gender specific data.

#ComponentMain intervention(s)Responsible TimeCostHazardous event (and how the problem may affect service provision or the utility) Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1F=FinanceCommunicate with donor organizations to make a plan for a safe withdrawal with the Corporation’s support with fuel, where the withdrawal plan includes the construction of water projects (installing integrated pumping units working by wind energy for 13 wells), as well as supporting the Corporation in digging nine additional wells and installing integrated pumping units working by solar energy.LC leadership donor organization2 Year-The lack of oil derivatives and its high prices> 10 Intolerable risk
2F=FinanceConducting a study to raise the tariff, taking into account the economic aspect of the high cost of livelihood of the community as a result of the war and the economic blockade, with taking into account the poor and destitute families. So that is by raising the value of the water sold to the group of commercial and governmental subscribers, also by raising the value of the water sold to the segments of the well-off society, especially to the subscribers and consumers whom consume above twenty cubic meters and more per month.Financial administration +commercial administration + Administration council6 Month-Water tariff do not cover production cost> 10 Intolerable risk
3F=FinanceContinuing to follow up on government offices and obliging them to include in their annual budgets the cost of water consumed and present that to the Ministry of Finance to approve this cost of consumed water in the annual government offices’ budgets, of their facilities and reverse it to the LC account to pay off the indebtedness of government departments so that the LC is able to meet its obligationsFinancial administration +commercial administration + LC leadership + MWE + MFOne Year-Indebtedness increased due to the war and the interruption of salaries, as well as the rise in government indebtedness> 10 Intolerable risk
4ADM = administration and customer relationsAttracting new qualified workers from university graduates to cover the deficit of skills workers in the LC, while communicating with donor organizations for the possibility of support in paying incentives for current and new working employees, if possible, and conducting training courses for existing and new workers and developing their capabilities.LC management affairs + LC leadership donor + organizationsOne Year-Lack of qualified staff and permanent, qualified staff leaving the LC> 10 Intolerable risk
5F=FinanceContinuing to communicate with organizations and donors in accordance with good practices to obtain approval for continued support to provide clean and safe water to citizens of the host community and the displaced, and to seek to sign new agreements with donorsLC leadership donor organizationsOne Year-Reducing support from international organizations and reducing government support significantly> 10 Intolerable risk
6F=Finance----Lack of information systems such as (complaints - public service - PIIS - GIS)> 10 Intolerable risk
7F=Finance----Absence of an approved staff description and an updated and approved organizational chart and structure(7 – 10) High risk

Table 13. Summary of action plan for prioritised water supply performance risks.

#ComponentIntervention(s)ResponsibleTimeCost ($)Priority Risk Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1TR = Treatment,Conducting an integrated study for the supply, installation and operation of 5 iron removal treatment units and presenting it to donor organizations to finance the projectProject management + payment administration + Head of LC+ Donor organizationsOne Year-Iron percentage increment in five working wellsintolerable risk
2SI = Source/Intake or boreholeConducting a study for the type for pumps that are installed and its specifications and sorting them according to previous reports for the good pump type that serves years and a longer period, and the bad type that only serves a short period. And making a need list for submersible pumps and motors with excellent specifications and presenting it to the donor organizations to finance their replacement and rehabilitation of some of it, which are still in a good condition. Also, financing training courses for technical teams specialized in the maintenance of wells and submersible pumps, and an explanation for them about the safe and correct ways to install pumps with efficiency and quality.Project management + procurement and warehouse management + LC leadership + donor organizationOne Year-Continuous damages and detrition for pumpsintolerable risk
3WS = Water StorageIssuing decisions from the Sa’ada Basin Committee to prevent random drilling and creating a mechanism to regulate the withdrawal of water from the basin by the wells already owned by farmers, and obliging them to install water production meters at each well, and determine the amount of water for each farmer, where does not exceed it. Presenting the decisions of the Basin Committee to the Ministry of Water and Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture for approval. after the approval the decisions they circulate this obligating and its implementation and commitment to activating and applying the law with coordination from the Water Resources Authority and the relevant authorities to make water barriers and earth bonds to develop the recharge of the water basin that serves the LC’s wellsSa'ada Basin Committee + Ministry of Water And environment + Ministry of Agriculture and irrigation10 – 6 Month-Decreasing of water levels in LC wells due to illegal wells excavation beside LC wells by farmers (annual water level decreasing is 4 to 6 m)intolerable risk
4DB = Distribution SystemMake a study, and tables of quantities, and specifications of the materials required to be provided in the utility stores to face emergency and sudden breakdowns, and communicate with donor organizations to obtain support and finance their provisionProject management + procurement and warehouse management + LC leadership + donor organizationsOne Year-There is no availability of spare part and networks maintenance material in LC stores (pumps , control plates, pipes, valves, ......etc)intolerable risk
5DB = Distribution SystemCommunication with donor organizations to obtain support and funding to replace the distribution network for unhealthy and unsafe household connections with a new, healthy and safe network, with the rehabilitation of the water network for the old and dilapidated part in the Salam area and the main streetProject management + procurement and warehouse management + LC leadership + donor organizationsOne Year-Poor equality of material uses in houses connections done by stockholders which extended from the water meters to the house, repeated damages and contamination with risk of contamination from damage of old part of the network (the percent of old network is 19% )intolerable risk
6SI = Source/Intake or boreholeContinuing communication with donor organizations and friendly donor countries to obtain funding for the implementation of a sewage network and treatment plant in the city of SaadaProject management + procurement and warehouse management + LC leadership + donor organizationsYear 5-Possibility of groundwater basin contamination due to the absence of swage network and swage treatment plantintolerable risk

Table 14. Summary of action plan for prioritised wastewater performance risks

#ComponentMain intervention(s)ResponsibleTimeCost ($)Hazardous event (and how hazard may arise) Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1TM=Transmission MainAfter completing the study, plans, designs, bills of quantities and specifications for the establishment of a wastewater treatment plant for Saada city, where the study was implemented by the Jordanian company Engicon, funded by UNICEF. The proposed intervention will be the continuation to communicate with donor organizations and friendly and donor countries to obtain funding for the implementation of a sewage treatment plant in the city of Saada. We also hope from the Dutch MitaMita organization to support the LC by financing the implementation of this project or coordinating from its part with the Dutch government to support and finance the project.Head of LC + Head of governorate + MWE5 years -Due to no waste water treatment plant the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may cuases contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.intolerable risk
2SS = Sewer SystemAfter completing the study, plans, designs, bills of quantities and specifications for the establishment of a wastewater treatment plant for Saada city, where the study was implemented by the Jordanian company Engicon, funded by UNICEF. The proposed intervention will be the continuation to communicate with donor organizations and friendly and donor countries to obtain funding for the implementation of a sewage treatment plant in the city of Saada. We also hope from the Dutch MitaMita organization to support the LC by financing the implementation of this project or coordinating from its part with the Dutch government to support and finance the project.Head of LC + Head of governorate + MWE Donor Organizations5 years -Due to no waste water networks the waste water pits are continuously over flowed and this is may be causes contamination for ground water aquifer and expanding the diseases and microbes.intolerable risk

7. Proposed monitoring system

The proposed monitoring comprises two main issues: overall monitoring of the monthly performance of the water supply and waste water system and progress with the implementation of the RSIP.

In this section it is also important to indicate when the RSIP will be reviewed and revised as needed (possibly on an annual basis).

Annex 1 RSIP Team and list of advisors that where consulted

The proposed monitoring system needs to cover system performance, effectivity op control measures, and implementation of the RSIP.

In this section it is also important to indicate when the RSIP will be reviewed and revised as needed (possibly on an annual basis).

#NameOrganizationRole in teamContact NumberEmail
1Sadaq Saleh AlnajriSaada LCChairman773864474Sadag5505@gmail.com
2Abdoalwadod Ahmed alsalamiSaada LCmember772952978Bdalwdwdalslmy434@gmail.com
3Yaha Ali AlaryniSaada LCmember774119395-
4Sameerah Naasir AlsalamiSaada LCmember771417124-
5Eng. Aneen Abdoraboh AlmawriSana’a LCConsultant777474841Eng_ar1@yahoo.com
6Support Staff from LC----
7Mohammed Qasim AlsaadiSaada LC(LC Manager)--
8Abdullah Ahmed RahmanSaada LCLC trading Manager--
9Mohammed Mahmod Al-DaqeeqSaada LCFinancial manager--

Overview of the boreholes used for the water supply

Overview of the boreholes used for the water supply

Table 15. Important risks in the water catchment area

Provide a brief description of the catchment area (Figure 3) (in case of a groundwater scheme of the aquifer and its main recharge area) and an indication of the main hazardous events in the water catchment area (water quality, water availability, landslides, catchment deterioration, expansion of agricultural border) that may affect system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 14). It is important to indicate whether the water utility by itself can do something in the water catchment or that it depends on other actors. This may include for example climate change related problems or over pumping by other actors.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Decreasing of water levels in LC wells due to illegal wells excavation beside LC wills by farmers (annual water level decreasing is 4 to 6 m)P = physical5 = very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time200
2Possibility of contamination of the water basin due to the absence of a sewage network and treatment plantC,M,IS=Chemical,Microbial, Interruption in supply5 = very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time200
3Iron percentage increment in five working wellsC = Chemical5 = very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time200

Table 16. Important risks in the water source and water intake

Provide a brief description of the water source(s) and water intake(s) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 15). This may include contamination of the source, deteriorating water quality in the source, lack of power sources, falling water table, damages of the intake due to war, flooding or other causes. If several boreholes exist, it may be an option to combine the description of the boreholes that tap the same aquifer, to minimize the length of the report. Yet it is essential that specific risks and hazardous events that are related to specific boreholes, such as high sensitivity to war damages, conflict points, or technical cracks in cover or casing that affect water quality of the borehole. Also provide a brief description of possible water loss that may take place in the water intake or transmission lines (Table 16). Whereas this is not included in the definition of non-revenue water it is important to understand the situation and explore whether this water loss can be prevented as it may make more water available for the water system or for other users. Water losses due to illegal use from the wells field or in the transmission lines for irrigation purposes consumes massive amount of water compared to domestic illegal uses.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The water level has fallen as a result of random digging by farmers near water wells, a drop of 4 to 6 meters per yearP = physical5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time214
2Possibility of contamination of the water basin due to the absence of a sewage network and treatment plantC,M,P=Chemical, Microbial, Physical5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time214
3Iron percentage increment in five working wellsC = chemical5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time214
4Continuous damages and detrition for pumpsP = physical5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time214

Overview of the Technical Design of Lc Boreholes

Figure 4. Overview of the Technical Design of Lc Boreholes

Table 17. Water loss in the water intake

Provide a brief description of the transmission main (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, water meter(s) and valves) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 17). This may include: leaking pipes, old pipes, landslides, poor reparations, illegal connections, etc. In case of pumping issues may be lack of fuel, poor electricity supply, inadequate maintenance etc. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place (Table 18).

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Picture of a diagram of the transmission lines

Overview of the Technical Design of Sana’a Lc Boreholes

Table 18 Important risks in the transmission main

Provide a brief description of the transmission main (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, water meter(s) and valves) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 17). This may include: leaking pipes, old pipes, landslides, poor reparations, illegal connections, etc. In case of pumping issues may be lack of fuel, poor electricity supply, inadequate maintenance etc. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place (Table 18).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1-M = microbial1 = minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time< 3 low risk

Table 19. Water loss in the transmission main

Table 19. Water loss in the transmission main

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

A picture or diagram of the treatment system and chlorination plants

Figure 6. A picture or diagram of the treatment system and chlorination plants

Table 20. Important risks related to the water treatment system​​

Hazard type: M = microbial, C = chemical, P = physical, IS = interruption in supply

Effect: 1 = minimal effect; 3 = serious impact, 5 = very serious impact

Frequency: Rare (1) < 1% of the time, cases, connections; Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time, cases, connections; Likely (3) > 20% of the time, cases, connections

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1-M = Microbial1 = Minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time < 3 Low risk

Table 21. Water loss in the treatment system

Table 21. Water loss in the treatment system

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Pictures of typical meter situation and storage tanks

Figure 7: Pictures of typical meter situation and storage tanks

Table 22. Important risks in the storage reservoir(s)

Provide a brief description of the storage reservoir(s) (Figure 7) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 21). This may include: leakages, damage because of the war, contamination, lack of maintenance. In case water chlorination is included in the storage reservoir than this also needs to be described (and this may entail problems with the supply of chlorine. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place including water that may be lost through the overflow or water used for cleaning (Table 22).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1-M = microbial1 = Minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time<3 Low risk

Table 23. Water loss in water storage reservoir

Table 23. Water loss in water storage reservoir

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Water Distribution Network Diagram

Figure 8: Diagram of water distribution networks

Table 24. Important risks in the distribution system(s

Provide a brief description of the distribution system(s) (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, overflow, water meter(s) and valves) and a schematic drawing of the system (Figure 8). Indicate the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 23). This may include: intermittent water supply (rationing), high leakage, illegal connections, inadequate repairs, damage due to the war. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place and the water pressure distribution (Table 24).

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Poor equality o material uses in houses connections done by stockholders which extended from the water meters to house (repeated damages and contamination with risk of contamination of old part of the network) the percent of old network is 19%M,P=microbial,physical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time272

Table 25. Water loss in water distribution system

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

A picture of the condition of the meter and the household tank

Figure 9: Picture of the case of the meter and the household tank

Table 26. Important risks in Household water storage

Provide a brief description of household water situation (type of water meter, household water storage (size, type of material) (Figure 9) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 25). Explore whether risks are gender specific. Give an indication of the water loss that may take place (flowing toilets, plumbing problems, leaking taps, including water that may be lost through the overflow of storage tanks (Table 26).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect):
1-M = Microbial1 = Minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time283

Table 27. Water loss at household level

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Pictures of alternative water sources

Figure 10: Pictures of alternative water sources

Table 28. Important risks in alternative water systems

Provide a brief description of alternative water systems (Figure 10), the level of use by consumers and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect these systems, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 27). This may include for example local water distribution points that provide water to the community which they receive from tankers (paid by humanitarian organizations), local wells and rainwater systems. In the Yemeni context alternative water sources may be an important source for drinking water and may for example entail a risk of spreading cholera, but also may affect water sales of the utility, affecting its financial sustainability and resilience.

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1-M = Microbial1 = Minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time297

Table 29. Less important risks that were identified

Table 29: Less important risks that were identified

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1-M = microbial1 = Minimal effect1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time311

Table 30. Intervention to reduce risk of water tariff not covering cost

Intervention to reduce risk of water tariff not covering cost

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1The last update of the tariff was in 2004 AD, and the increment of prices in the recent years, including the rise in fuel prices, the tariff did not cover operating expenses in current statusOne Year-Conducting a study to raise the tariff, taking into account the economic aspect of the high cost of living experienced by th e community as a result of the war and the economic blockade, i.e. taking into account the poor and destitute families, and is, raising the value of the water sold to the group of commercial and governmental subscribers, and also raising the value of the water sold to the segments of the affluent society, especially to the subscribers and consumers above twenty cubic meters1. Making a plan for a safe withdrawal from the organizations’ support for the Foundation with fuel and preparing all studies related to the plan after coordination with donor organizations to continue the support and approval of the plan 2. 3. Obtaining all approvals to increase the tariff after completing the study for raising the tariff that determines the segments in which the increase will be made 3. 4. Conducting a study for the possibility of installing pumps powered by wind energy 4. Community Verified icon account the poor and destitute families, and is, raising the value of the water sold to the group of commercial and governmental subscribers, and also raising the value of the water sold to the segments of the affluent society, especially to the subscribers and consumers above twenty cubic meters
2The institution suffers from a shortage of qualified and trained cadres after many of the permanent employees left the institution for various reasons, including (reduce the paid incentive - some of them get jobs in better places and ask for assignment - some of them are disabled because of their age - and some are martyred)One Year-Attracting new qualified workers from university graduates to cover the deficit, while communicating with donor organizations for the possibility of support in paying incentives to working employees, if possible, and conducting training courses for existing and new workers .and developing their capabilities1. Recruitment of new workers from young university graduates looking for work. 2. Presenting the problem to the donor organizations in order to obtain from them the foundation’s support by paying incentives and conducting capacity building training courses
3The donor organizations reduced the support in 2020 and 2021, as no water project was implemented during the two years, and there was also a shortage of fuel support, where the quantities received were reduced and not continued on a monthly basis, and the investment program was stopped by the government One YearOne Year-1. Preparing the studies required within the foundation’s plan for the second phase of the national vision, which is also within the plan for the safe withdrawal, and presenting it to donor organizations for funding 2. Carrying out all the assessments of the risks required from the donor organizations, and implementing the comments1. Preparing the studies required within the foundation’s plan for the second phase of the national vision, which is also within the plan for the safe withdrawal, and presenting it to donor organizations for funding 2. Carrying out all the assessments of the risks required from the donor organizations, and implementing the comments submitted by them, to correct the path to reach the good practices required by the organizations, in mitigating risks, in order to ensure increasing the strength and transparency of the partnership between the institution and the donor organizations

Table 31. Intervention to Very high NRW (technical and financial losses)

Intervention to Very high NRW (technical and financial losses)

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1The debt until the end of 2020 amounted to be (408,052,853 YR, including government debt which is difficult-to-collect and doubtful set-aside debt, and the percentage of government debt and set-aside debt is 80% of the total debtOne Year-Continuing to follow up on government offices to raise in their annual budgets of the value of water, and follow-up and the Ministry of Finance to approve the value of water in the annual government offices budgets and reverse it to the institution’s account to pay off the indebtedness of government departments. So the institution has the ability to meet its obligations and raise the set aside indebtedness to the Council of Ministers to issue a decision in it or present it to donor organizations to pay it off for the poor citizens1. Produce a list for the government indebtedness attached with the invoices, and make letters of claim to government offices, and write letters to the Ministry of Finance to deduct the indebtedness from the offices’ budgets and add it to the institution’s account. Presenting the problem to the donor .2 organizations with the aim of obtaining from them the foundation’s support by paying the set aside debt that belongs to the poor and less poor citizens, or continuing to support the foundation with fuel to be their support for the poor and the less poor citizens 3. Make a list of the set aside debt and submit it to the Council of Ministers to issue a decision if they are unable to obtain any promises from the donor organizations to pay the set aside debt that belongs to the poor and less poor citizens as support.

Table 32. Intervention to reduce risk of high fuel prices and frequent fuel crises (Fuel Instability)

Intervention to reduce risk of high fuel prices and frequent fuel crises (Fuel Instability)

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1Lack of oil derivatives (recurrent fuel crises) and high prices (inability to buy them with low water (tariffs2 years -Communicate with donor organizations to make a plan for a safe withdrawal from the foundation’s fuel support, and provided the withdrawal plan including the implementation of water projects. (installing integrated pumping units powered by wind energy for 13 wells), or assisting the foundation in drilling additional wells and installing for it integrated pumping units powered by solar energy)1. Making a plan for a safe withdrawal from the organizations’ support for the Foundation with fuel and preparing all studies related to the plan after coordination with donor organizations to continue the support and approval of the plan 2. 3. Obtaining all approvals to increase the tariff after completing the study for raising the tariff that determines the segments in which the increase will be made 3. 4. Conducting a study for the possibility of installing pumps powered by wind energy 4. Community Verified icon

table 33.Intervention to reduce risk of households water storage tanks

In this section, the proposed actions to improve the system and enhance its resilience are presented in some detail. In this version of the report the activities related to only one of the main risks are presented in table (A2.10.1); in the final version also the other priority actions will be included.

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1The iron content percentage is high in the five water wells located in the Talams fieldOne Year-Conducting an integrated study for the supply, installation and operation of 5 iron removal treatment units and presenting it to the donor organizations to finance the project1. Conducting a study for the supply, installation and operation of five iron removal treatment units 2. Presenting this study to the donor organizations to finance the implementation of the project
2The institution faces sudden breakdowns even in wells, power systems or networks, due to the lack of a stockpile of spare parts and maintenance materials for (submersible pumps - submersible motors - pipes - valves - meters - solar panels - inverters - cables and others)One Year-Make a study, table of quantities, and specifications of the materials required to be available in the foundation’s stores to face emergency and sudden breakdowns, and communicate with donor organizations to obtain support and finance to provide it1. Preparing a study (tables of quantities and specifications) for the materials required to be available in the stores, including spare parts and maintenance materials 2. Presenting this problem to donor organizations for the purpose of obtaining support for financing its supply and provision in warehouses to face malfunctions and to continue providing clean and safe water to the citizens of the host community and the displaced
3The annual decline in the basin is between 4 to 6 meters, and there are random digging by farmers and excessive depletion, especially after the use of solar energy by farmers. We recently encountered the drying of two wells in the Qahza area6 – 10 Month-Issuing decisions from the Sa’ada Basin Committee to prevent random drilling and creating a mechanism to regulate the withdrawal of water from the basin to wells use by farmers and obliging them to install water production meters at each well and to determine the amount of water for each farmer, provided that it does not exceed it, and to present the decisions of the Basin Committee to the Ministry of Water and Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture for approval of decisions And approving and circulating obligatory implementation1. Seeking decisive decisions from the Saada Basin Committee 2. aproval of decisions by the Ministry of Water and the Ministry of Agriculture and the issuance of a circular obligating implementation.
4The institution suffers from frequent breakdowns of motors and submersible pumps due to the use of cheap submersible motors and pumps, and therefore poor specifications and a shortage of qualified personnel in the maintenance of wellsOne Year-Conducting a study of the type of pumps that are being installed and their specifications and sorting them according to previous reports of the good type that serves years and a longer period and the bad type that only serve for a short period and making a need for submersible pumps and motors with excellent specifications and presenting them to the donor organizations to finance their provision with the financing of training courses for specialized technical teams In the maintenance of wells and submersible pumps and explain to them about the safe and correct ways to install pumps efficiently with good quality1. Presenting the problem to the donor organizations and seeking to obtain from them approval to provide a large quantity of pumps and submersible motors, which are with high quality in specifications and whose prices are high, and which the institution is unable to purchase. 2. Make a plan to train existing or to be employed cadres and present this plan to donor organizations for the purpose of financing its implementation

table 34: Intervention to reduce risk of sewers blockage

In this section, the proposed actions to improve the system and enhance its resilience are presented in some detail. In this version of the report the activities related to only one of the main risks are presented in table (34); in the final version also the other priority actions will be included.

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1One of the most important problems that population suffer from in the governorate of Saada is the lack of a sewage project, which may cause pollution of the water basin due to the depth of the pits that are dug by citizens for sewage water in the soil areas, especially hotel, restaurants and building owners, some of these pits may reach 40 meters depth, as well as the problem of the spread of Epidemics and diseases due to the continuous eruption of pits, especially those dug in rocky areas where they are small and quickly filled, and form swamps in streets and lanes, causing the spread of bad spirits, epidemics, diseases and the possibility of Contamination of drinking water, especially when explosions occur near sewage swamps, and we also face the lack of places to empty the sewage that was sucked by the suction trucks, as pits were made for it in the garbage dump and the dump is done there, which may cause pollution because the dump of sewage is close to the houses.Six months-After completing the study, plans, designs, bills of quantities and specifications for the construction of a sewage treatment plant and a sewage network for the city of Saada The study was implemented by the Jordanian company Engicon, funded by UNICEF Seeking in all possible ways to obtain support from donor organizations and friendly and donor countries to obtain funding for the implementation of the sanitation project in the city of Saada. We also hope from the Dutch Mita Mita organization will support the institution by financing the implementation of the project or coordinating on its part to obtain a grant to support us even from the Dutch government or from European governments1. Seek to implement the solutions suggested above