Water and Sanitation Local Cooperation's RSIP

 2022-05-27  Resilience and Service Improvement Plan for Matna Water and Sanitation Local Corporation

Water and Sanitation Local Cooperation's RSIP

Annotated content page RSIP(Note for the reader; this annotated content page has been developed to facilitate the development of the Resilience and Service Improvement Plan (RSIP) report

1 Summary of the plan

This section provides a brief summary of the main problems and actions that were identified to enhance the performance of the utility and improve its resilience. The summary presents the main problems and solutions that have been identified related to the financial, administrative and technical performance, whilst also looking at possible environmental and man-made threats (Table 1).This section visualizes a brief summery for the main problems and procedures that were identified to enhance the performance of the utilities and improve its resilience plan. The summery also demonstrates main problems and the optimal solutions that have been identified regarding Financial, administrative and technical performance. It also highlights the possible environmental and humanitarian threats.

Table 1 Summary of main problems, proposed actions and time frame

The main problems and proposed actions are briefly presented below under three* main subheadings:

Financial, administrative and consumer related risks

Risk and intervention 1: …….. (just the name or a brief explanation of the problem; followed by the proposed intervention in a little more detail than indicated in the table)

Risk and intervention 2: …..

Risk and intervention 3: ……

Technical risks

Risk and intervention 1: …….

Risk and intervention 2: ……..

Risk and intervention 3: …….

This summery will very much help sharing the planned activities with different actors.

#Priority RiskRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The difficulty of obtaining historical data for the various activities of the branch of the institution and the inability to monitor performance indicators due to the lack of a computerized database (data is still entered manually)> 10 Intolerable risk
2The increase in the fuel and oil derivatives prices , which causes an increase in operating expenses> 10 Intolerable risk
3The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk
4The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk
5The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk
6The aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersmedium risk
7The water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the networkintolerable risk
8The possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellhigh risk
9Water loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flangeslow risk
10The pumping lines pass through sloping areas without any reinforcement/fixing with concrete blocks that may cause the pumping lines to collapse, water loss and pumping stopshigh risk
11The chlorination process and water quality control stopped due to lack of chlorine, problems in providing equipment and devices, and the lack of qualified staffintolerable risk
12The storage tank lacks maintenance and there may be leakage from it and the possibility of landslides as a result of the frequent flooding from the tanks due to the absence of an indicator to measure the amount of water in the tank and the absence of an alarm system that stops the pumps when the tank is full and the possibility of pollutants entering the tank through the ventilation holes of the tank, which was Implemented in a way that does not comply with the technical requirementsintolerable risk
13Water Loss and biological water contamination due to fracture of the surface distribution networkhigh risk
14Water pollution due to the lack of cleanliness and periodic maintenance of household storage tanks, also the subscribers use unsanitary storage tools for water storageintolerable risk
15Water pollution and the spread of epidemics in alternative systems (water supply system through charity tanks and vender tanks) , as a result of not applying health and environmental requirementsintolerable risk
16Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Costintolerable risk
17Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Costintolerable risk
18The sewage is discharged to cesspits (septic tanks), which are often filled and overflowed, causing the spread of pollutants and diseases.intolerable risk

2 Introduction

The resilience and service improvement plan (RSIP) for the water utility ……….. was developed in ….., by a small team of .. persons (Annex 1). It presents an overview of the water supply and sewerage system, its main components, and the main problems related to the performance of the organization and the risks that have been identified related to the water quality, quantity and continuity of the water supply waste water services. It outlines the envisaged actions that have been prioritised to be implemented to enhance performance and improve resilience to respond to natural and manmade disasters. It includes a time frame, an indication of responsible actors, and provides a brief description of the monitoring and review process that is envisaged. The plan also looks at the risks related to the pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 virus.

Revise text: Whereas there is no indication of transmission of this virus through water supply, the pandemic may cause serious disruptions in system operations This may include shortage of staff, power disruptions, and shortages of chemicals and other supplies, caused for example by Government directives. Protecting the health and safety of employees needs to be emphasized in the risk mitigation plan to ensure that essential functions can be maintained..

The RSIP was approved by …. on …. (date), and will be reviewed on …. (date)

Table 2. Basic information about the utility and its customers

This section provides basic information of the water utility and its customers (Table 2)

Name of the utilityMatna- Water and Sanitation Local Corporation
City/GovernorateMatna – Sana’a
City Population22,000
Number of customers (water supply / wastewater)Water 13030 & San. 0
Water supply/ Waste water coverageWater 59 % & San. 0 %
How many internally displaced persons (IDP) are served by the system (and % of IDP in area)1500 (6.8% of the total number of IDPs)
Per capita water demand (l/c/d)60
Average water demand (m3/day)Untitled782
Average water production (m3/day)349
Average water volume billed (m3/day)297.5
Per capita consumption (l/c/d), (billed)23
Operating hours/day and day/weekDay: 9.5 hours, Week 7days
Main Power sourceDiesel generators - solar energy
Number of staff26
Non-revenue water (NRW) (%)14.8%
Average volume of waste water produced (m3/day)0
Average volume of waste water treated (m3/day)0

Table 3a. Financial performance of the water branch of the utility

Financial performance of the water branch of the utility

Rate revenues(metered) per year75045
Income from flat rates (not metered) per year-
Income from commercial customers per year-
Income from public taps, if any per year-
Subsidy (government, municipality) per year2875
Other income (specify) per year15174.2
Total annual income93094.2
Total annual expenditures93094.2
Collection efficiency (payment received/billed amount/year)100% (prepaid system)
Annual cost recovery from users (income from users /expenditures)99%
Average cost of water production and distribution (per m3)0.72

Table 3b. Financial performance of the waste water branch

Table 3b. Financial performance of the waste water branch (This table only need to be included if cost for water and sanitation are available separately)

Income from waste water (WW) charges to users per year-
Income from WW charges to commercial customers per year-
Subsidy (government, municipality) per year-
Other income (specify) per year-
Total annual incomeThere is no sewage network
Total annual expenditures-
Collection efficiency (payment received/billed amount/year)%
Annual cost recovery from users (income from users /expenditures)%
Average cost of waste water discharge and treatment (per m3)-

Table 4. Main cost items for the water and waste water (cost in $ per year) (2019)

Table 4. Main cost items for the water and waste water (cost in $ per year)

Staff cost for water supply 0
Staff cost for waste water0
Staff cost-Total cost per year0
Transport cost (vehicles etc.) for water supply 0
Transport cost (vehicles etc.) for waste water0
Transport cost (vehicles etc.)-Total cost per year0
Energy cost for water supply 0
Energy cost for waste water 0
Energy cost (also includes maintenance cost of all transport) - Total cost per year0
Chemicals costs for water supply0
Chemicals costs for waste water 0
Chemicals costs-Total cost per year0
Materials costs for water supply 0
Materials costs for waste water
Materials costs -Total cost per yearDifficulty obtaining data as a result of the lack of a fiduciary system, and obtaining data requires a lot of time and sorting out exchange orders
Contracts for larger repairs for water supply0
Contracts for larger repairs for waste water 0
Contracts for larger repairs -Total cost per year0
Others for water supply0
Others for waste water 0
Others-Total cost per year0
Total annual cost for water supply91132.2
Total annual cost for waste water 0
Total annual cost- Total cost per year91132.2
The cost items include the monetary value of the in-kind contributions the utility receives; The table does not include cost related to system expansion If cost for water and waste water cannot be separated then just fill the last column-

Table 5 Water balance

One key tool to assess the situation in the utility is the water balance (Table 5). Filling out the water balance will give an indication of the performance of the utility in terms of water supply. On average in 2019 a volume of …. m3 is put into supply and on average a volume of …. m3 is being billed to customers. A more detailed estimate of the water balance is presented in Table 5.

This overview only concerns the water loss as defined by IWA, which is about the water that is produced and put into supply. In addition however water may be ‘lost’ in the intake structure and in the transmission main to the water treatment plant, (or water tank with disinfection), the treatment process (backwash) and the transmission to water storage tanks.

Authorized consumption m3 0
Authorized consumption Billed m3 108567m3
Authorized consumption Billed metered Volume m3108567
Authorized consumption Billed unmetered Volume m30
Authorized consumption Billed Unpaid metered (partly delayed payment)Volume m30
Authorized consumption Billed Unpaid unmetered Volume m30
Authorized consumption unbilled Volume m30
Authorized consumption unbilled metered Volume m30
Authorized consumption unbilled unmetered m30
Water losses m30
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) m3943m3
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) - Metering inaccuracies volume m30
Water losses - apparent losses (commercial losses) - Unauthorized consumption (illegal connections)volume m30
Water losses Real losses volume m317922m3
Water losses Real losses Leakages in storage reservoirs, distribution mains and service lines volume m30
Water losses-Real losses -Overflow of water tanks, flushing of pipes volume m30
Total Revenue water-Authorized\consumption108567m3
Total non revenue water m318865m3

Table 6 Main financial and organizational problems and risks

In this section the main financial and organizational problems are being presented that may jeopardize the performance and the resilience of the utility. Hazardous events in this area may relate to financing, administration and customer relationships (Table 6). The main hazardous events have to be identified and the risks have to be assessed to be able to prioritize action.

Problems may include a high level of non-revenue water. It may be this is already known in more detail (high water physical water loss, many illegal connections, and water meter inaccuracies). It may also be a more general problem of water tariffs that are not covering the cost, a large number of displaced persons with limited resources, or because other financial resources such as support from external organizations may be at risk.

Administrative problems may include: high staff turnover, weak staff regulations, administrative difficulties such as meter reading, inaccurate customer data base, as well as not following up on customer complaints.

#Hazardous event (and how the problem may affect service provision or the utility) HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The difficulty of obtaining historical data for the various activities of the branch of the institution and the inability to monitor performance indicators due to the lack of a computerized database (data is still entered manually)LF=lack of finance to pay staff and suppliers5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
2The increase in the fuel and oil derivatives prices , which causes an increase in operating expensesIS,LF= interruption in supply,lack of finance to pay staff and suppliers5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
3The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the lossesIS = interruption in supply 3 = Serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time(7 – 10) High risk
4The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the lossesIS = interruption in supply 3 = Serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time(7 – 10) High risk
5The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the lossesIS = interruption in supply 3 = Serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time(7 – 10) High risk

3 Review of risks in the water supply system

This section provides an overview of the system including some key characteristics (Table 7), a map with the system components (Figure 1) and an overview of the main risks that have been identified (Table 8). These risks may relate to different types of hazards including the deterioration of the biological, chemical or physical water quality, problems related to the availability of water, interruption of water distribution. The information presented in this chapter is based on the detailed assessment of each component of the water system presented in Annex 2.

Table 7. Basic information about the water supply system

This section provides an overview of the system including some key characteristics (Table 7), a map with the system components (Figure 1) and an overview of the main risks that have been identified (Table 8). These risks may relate to different types of hazards including the deterioration of the biological, chemical or physical water quality, problems related to the availability of water, interruption of water distribution. The information presented in this chapter is based on the detailed assessment of each component of the water system presented in Annex 2.

Type of water source(s)Groundwater
Number of boreholes and capacity (l/s)3 wells (10 L/s)– one operating well
Depth of boreholes (range)Average 200m
Age (average and range)Average 10 years (5-25 year)
Average water production (m3/day)349
Type of water treatmentNon
Design capacity (m3/day)10,800
Transmission lines + pumping mains (km)2.5
Distribution system (service connections) (km)30.3
Water storage tanks (number& total capacity in m3)2 tanks with a capacity of 700 m3, ( one is operating with a capacity of 500 m3)
Number of operating water pumps7-day/week ,9.5 hours/day
Spare pumps1
Number of house connections (W &WW)Water 1123 & 0 San. connection
Part of house connections with meters (%)84 %
Number of public, social and utility standpoints18
Operating hours/day and day/week9.5h /7 days
Main Power sourceGenerators, Solar energy
Number of bulk water meters22
Non-revenue water (NRW)% 14.8
Commercial losses (%) of NRW% 0.8
Leakage (%) of NRW% 14
Average operating pressure (m) and range20
Number of pipe bursts (No/km/year)month /25
Specific damages caused by the warNon.
Schematic drawing of the system and its main components

Table 8. Summary of important hazards and risks in the components of the water system

Hazard type: M = microbial, C = chemical, P = physical, IS = interruption in supply.

Effect: 1 = minimal effect; 3 = serious impact, 5 = very serious impact

Frequency: Rare (1) < 1% of the time, cases, connections, area; Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time, cases, connections, area; Likely (3) > 20% of the time, cases, connections, area

Risk levels (frequency x effect): low risk < 3; medium risk 3 – 6; high risk 7 – 10; intolerable risk > 10

#Priority Risk HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersC,IS=Chemical، Interruption in supply5=Very serious impact1=Rare (1) < 1% of the timemedium risk
2The water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the networkIS,M= Interruption in supply, Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
3The possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellIS,M,C= Interruption in supply, Microbial ,Chemical5=Very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the timehigh risk
4Water loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flanges M = Microbial1 = minimal effect2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the timelow risk
5The pumping lines pass through sloping areas without any reinforcement/fixing with concrete blocks that may cause the pumping lines to collapse, water loss and pumping stopsIS = Interruption in supply5=Very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the timehigh risk
6The chlorination process and water quality control stopped due to lack of chlorine, problems in providing equipment and devices, and the lack of qualified staff M = Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
7The storage tank lacks maintenance and there may be leakage from it and the possibility of landslides as a result of the frequent flooding from the tanks due to the absence of an indicator to measure the amount of water in the tank and the absence of an alarm system that stops the pumps when the tank is full and the possibility of pollutants entering the tank through the ventilation holes of the tank, which was Implemented in a way that does not comply with the technical requirementsIS,M= Interruption in supply, Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
8Water Loss and biological water contamination due to fracture of the surface distribution networkIS,M= Interruption in supply, Microbial5=Very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the timehigh risk
9Water pollution due to the lack of cleanliness and periodic maintenance of household storage tanks, also the subscribers use unsanitary storage tools for water storage M = Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
10Water pollution and the spread of epidemics in alternative systems (water supply system through charity tanks and vender tanks) , as a result of not applying health and environmental requirements M,C= Microbial, Chemical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
11Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high CostIS = Interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk
12Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high CostIS = Interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk

Overview of the water supply system

Figure 1. Overview of the water supply system

4 Waste water related problems

In this section the proposed actions to improve performance and enhance resilience are presented in some detail. The activities for each main risk are presented in a separate table (29 etc., ……)

Table 9. Basic information about the waste water system

This section provides an overview of the sewer system and waste water treatment plants, including some key characteristics (Table 9) and a map with the system components (Figure 2).


Name-
Average annual flow (m3/year)-
Type of waste water treatment (and age)-
Annual average design flow (m3/year)-
Length of sewerage system (km) -
Design organic load (BOD)-
Actual inlet organic load (BOD)--
Efficiency: outflow organic load (BOD)-
Age of distribution system (average and range)-
Number of service connections-
Number of sewer left stations-
Operating hours/day-
Main power source-
Number of waste water overflow points-
Specific damages caused by the war-

​Table 10. Summary of important hazards and risks related to waste water​

Table 10 presents the main hazardous events and risks that have been identified. These risks may relate to different types of events including blockage of sewers causing contamination of housing areas, deterioration of the infrastructure, pumping problems, interruption or malfunctioning of the treatment system generating odour problems or fly nuisance but also low connection ratio in areas where onsite systems are causing problems. If wastewater management and financing is separated from the management of the water supply system, than risks may also include financing and staff problems. The resulting hazards may include contamination of the service area and of downstream water sources which may contribute to the spread of disease including for example cholera. In case a considerable number of risks exist a good option to consider is to present a more detailed analysis in an annex and just summarise the situation in Table 10.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may arise) HazardEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The sewage is discharged to cesspits (septic tanks), which are often filled and overflowed, causing the spread of pollutants and diseases.PF,OP=Proliferation of flies, Odour problems 5= very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the timeintolerable risk

The wastewater treatment system components

Figure 3: Picture of the basin area (watershed)

5 Overview of the main risks and possible control measures

Table 11. Effect of control measures on important risk

In this section the main risks that were identified in chapter 2, 3, and 4 are listed (Table 11). For some of these the utility may already have put already control measures or other interventions in place that may reduce the risk if effective or not. This needs to be taken into account in the final priority setting related to the different risks that were established in section 2, 3, and 4. To clarify this issue we can look at some examples. A possible hazardous event may be that a borehole gets contaminated because of inflow of water from the surface due to poor protection of the well head. Flooding may happen a few times a year (score 3 likely) and impact is serious (3) so risk is 9. The utility may have arranged for disinfecting wells after flooding, but this may not prevent water draining into the well when it rains. So the control measure does not seem effective. Hence despite the control measure the risk does remain 9. Another hazardous event may be experienced staff leaving the utility. A control measure that may have been put in place is to develop standard operating procedures so new staff knows what to do, but this may not be sufficient to overcome the lack of experience. So in that case the risk still may be high and this then requires a more in-depth analysis of the causes of experienced staff leaving

#ComponentPriority RiskExisting control measure (mitigation in place)TimeeffectRisk remaining taking with control measure
1SI = Source/IntakeThe aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersDialogue with farmers to reduce fertilizer use-Slight = Slight effect on risk3 – 6 Medium risk
2SI = Source/IntakeThe water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the networkNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
3SI = Source/IntakeThe possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellPeriodic monitoring is done-Good = Important effect on risk 3<Low risk
4TM = Transmission MainWater loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flangesPeriodic monitoring is done-Good = Important effect on risk 3<Low risk
5TM = Transmission MainThe pumping lines pass through sloping areas without any reinforcement/fixing with concrete blocks that may cause the pumping lines to collapse, water loss and pumping stopsNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
6TR = TreatmentThe chlorination process and water quality control stopped due to lack of chlorine, problems in providing equipment and devices, and the lack of qualified staffNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
7WS = Water StorageThe storage tank lacks maintenance and there may be leakage from it and the possibility of landslides as a result of the frequent flooding from the tanks due to the absence of an indicator to measure the amount of water in the tank and the absence of an alarm system that stops the pumps when the tank is full and the possibility of pollutants entering the tank through the ventilation holes of the tank, which was Implemented in a way that does not comply with the technical requirementsNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
8DB = Distribution SystemWater Loss and biological water contamination due to fracture of the surface distribution networkBroken lines maintenance is done-Slight = Slight effect on risk>10 Very high risk
9HS = Household Storage Water pollution due to the lack of cleanliness and periodic maintenance of household storage tanks, also the subscribers use unsanitary storage tools for water storageNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
10HS = Household Storage Water pollution and the spread of epidemics in alternative systems (water supply system through charity tanks and vender tanks) , as a result of not applying health and environmental requirementsNo any procedures-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
11SI = Source/IntakeFailure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high CostFailure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Cost-No = No effect>10 Very high risk
12SI = Source/IntakeFailure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high CostFailure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Cost-No = No effect>10 Very high risk

6. Action plan for prioritised resilience risks

Table 12. Summary of action plan for prioritised risks related to the finance and administration

This section presents an action plan for the prioritised performance and resilience risks that relate to financing, organization, administration, and customer relations (Table 12). Some lower priority actions may also be included in the table if they are very easy to overcome at low or no cost. For the actions, it is essential to take a gender sensitive approach and take into account gender specific data.

#ComponentMain intervention(s)Responsible TimeCostHazardous event (and how the problem may affect service provision or the utility) Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1ADM = administration and customer relationsStarting of using the Excel program to record data and daily activities and seek assistance from other institutions to develop an administrative, financial and commercial accounting system, search for funding from donors to develop the system, train administrative staff to use the computerized system, provide office equipment, programs, and accounting and administrative systems necessary to activate the use of the computerized systemBranch + Institution6 months18000The difficulty of obtaining historical data for the various activities of the branch of the institution and the inability to monitor performance indicators due to the lack of a computerized database (data is still entered manually)> 10 Intolerable risk
2F=FinanceReducing energy consumption by operating the wells standing in the solar energy system and dialogue with donors to provide oil derivatives and request government support of fuel pricesBranch + InstitutionOne year120000The increase in the fuel and oil derivatives prices , which causes an increase in operating expenses> 10 Intolerable risk
3F=FinanceEstablish and rehabilitate the NRW team and prepare an integrated and sustainable plan to reduce NWR losses; It includes: checking to ensure the accuracy of the meter reading, disconnecting illegal connections, active leakage control and replacing damaged metersBranch + Institution3 months20000The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk
4F=FinanceEstablish and rehabilitate the NRW team and prepare an integrated and sustainable plan to reduce NWR losses; It includes: checking to ensure the accuracy of the meter reading, disconnecting illegal connections, active leakage control and replacing damaged metersBranch + Institution3 months20000The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk
5F=FinanceEstablish and rehabilitate the NRW team and prepare an integrated and sustainable plan to reduce NWR losses; It includes: checking to ensure the accuracy of the meter reading, disconnecting illegal connections, active leakage control and replacing damaged metersBranch + Institution3 months20000The high percentage of losses (administrative and technical), due to the absence of a specialized team to follow up on the losses(7 – 10) High risk

Table 13. Summary of action plan for prioritised water supply performance risks.

#ComponentIntervention(s)ResponsibleTimeCost ($)Priority Risk Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1SI = Source/Intake or boreholePreventing pollution of the aquarium water by regulating the fertilizer application process (the quantity and quality of fertilizers)Branch + Institution3 months3,000Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Costintolerable risk
2HS = Household StorageAnalyzing the problem and conducting maintenance for a group of tanks in conjunction with checking the water quality at the subscribers’ tap. Once it is proven that there are water quality risks, a dialogue is conducted with donor organizations (UNICEF, GIZ, WHO) to support water quality testing programs - Implementation of awareness campaigns on the importance of hygiene and periodic maintenance of tanksBranch + local authority2 months2000Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high Costintolerable risk
3SI = Source/Intake or boreholeProviding housing for the well operator, close to the site of the well, if possible, and dialogue with the organizations to finance the construction of a room for the operator next to the well, and work in it alternately with another operator because of the importance of this to preserve the pumping units from any tampering and the consequent interruption of water on the subscribersBranch + Institution3 months5000The water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the networkintolerable risk
4SI = Source/Intake or boreholeDialogue with donors about the importance of enhancing water sources in improving service and its continuity, and trying to obtain financial support to enhance water sources, as the corporation has two wells dug, but have not been operated since they were dug, due to the inability in providing the needs to operate the wells (pumps, extensions and sources Energy and construction worksBranch + Institution3 months170000The chlorination process and water quality control stopped due to lack of chlorine, problems in providing equipment and devices, and the lack of qualified staffintolerable risk
5TM = Transmission Main,Activating the activities of the management and follow-up team to assess the level of loss and leakage and to examine whether solutions can be made to protect the lines by reducing the surface runoff (caused by rain) in the paths of the pumping lines by making diversion dams in critical areas that keep the pumping lines from drifting, and strengthening the lines by Concrete blocks, as well as pressure management in steep places by making pressure reducing valvesBranch + Institution6 months10000The storage tank lacks maintenance and there may be leakage from it and the possibility of landslides as a result of the frequent flooding from the tanks due to the absence of an indicator to measure the amount of water in the tank and the absence of an alarm system that stops the pumps when the tank is full and the possibility of pollutants entering the tank through the ventilation holes of the tank, which was Implemented in a way that does not comply with the technical requirementsintolerable risk
6TM = Transmission Main,Transferring the pumping line from the areas where the pumping line is tampered with by the citizensBranch + Institution6 months5000Water pollution due to the lack of cleanliness and periodic maintenance of household storage tanks, also the subscribers use unsanitary storage tools for water storageintolerable risk
7TR = Treatment,Studying the size of the problem and checking the water quality at the subscribers’ tap. Once it is proven that there are water quality risks, a dialogue with donor organizations (UNICEF, GIZ, WHO) to support water quality testing programsBranch + InstitutionBranch + Institution1500Water pollution and the spread of epidemics in alternative systems (water supply system through charity tanks and vender tanks) , as a result of not applying health and environmental requirementsintolerable risk
8WS = Water StorageActivating periodic maintenance activities and verifying the presence of leakage - looking for funding to rehabilitate the storage tankBranch + Institution3 months15000The possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellhigh risk
9DB = Distribution SystemActivate the activities of the management and follow-up team to assess the level of loss and leakage and examine whether solutions can be made to protect the lines and transform the surface network into a network buried underground if necessaryBranch + Institution3 months5,000The pumping lines pass through sloping areas without any reinforcement/fixing with concrete blocks that may cause the pumping lines to collapse, water loss and pumping stopshigh risk
10HS = Household StorageExamining the extent of the problem with subscribers, reviewing the water sources used by tanks and the way they are dealt with, and the extent of quality of them and which are provided by the private sector in return for their high cost - Activating the technical and environmental regulations and requirements for Branch + National Water Resources AuthorityBranch + National Water Resources Authority6 months3,000Water Loss and biological water contamination due to fracture of the surface distribution networkhigh risk
11WS = Water StorageActivating periodic maintenance activities and verifying the presence of leakage - looking for funding to rehabilitate the storage tankBranch + Institution3 months15000The aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersmedium risk
12DB = Distribution SystemAnalyze the problem in more detail and explore the available and possible options for the institution to undertake to provide water supplies to citizens and reduce water demand, and explore whether it is possible to expand the public network or provide water tanks at a cheaper price compared to the high private sector prices, and try to persuade subscribers to pay the debts they owe and accept the increase in the tariff in return for Improving the service, and dialogue with donors to finance the expansion of the system because of its importance in providing water to subscribers at a reasonable tariff compared to the high tariff of the private sectorBranch + Institution30 months436,000Water loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flangeslow risk

Table 14. Summary of action plan for prioritised wastewater performance risks

#ComponentMain intervention(s)ResponsibleTimeCost ($)Hazardous event (and how hazard may arise) Risk levels (frequency x effect)
1SS = Sewer SystemForming a team to study the problem in more detail and develop short and long-term intervention plans- Searching for financing to provide sewage suction units from cesspits when they are full-Establishment of a sewage network with treatment plantCivil society in cooperation with the branch30 months500000The sewage is discharged to cesspits (septic tanks), which are often filled and overflowed, causing the spread of pollutants and diseases.intolerable risk

7. Proposed monitoring system

The proposed monitoring comprises two main issues: overall monitoring of the monthly performance of the water supply and waste water system and progress with the implementation of the RSIP.

In this section it is also important to indicate when the RSIP will be reviewed and revised as needed (possibly on an annual basis).

Annex 1 RSIP Team and list of advisors that where consulted

The proposed monitoring system needs to cover system performance, effectivity op control measures, and implementation of the RSIP.

In this section it is also important to indicate when the RSIP will be reviewed and revised as needed (possibly on an annual basis).

#NameOrganizationRole in teamContact NumberEmail
1Dr.Rasheed AlsadiMatna CorporationTeam Leader771719080
2 Eng. Mohammed AlharityMatna CorporationTeam Leader777416415
3Fouad Ahmed AlmadaniMatna CorporationTeam member772519949
4Dr. Zamzam A.Y.MubarakSana’a UniversityTrainer774229900Zamzam_mubarak@yahoo.com
5Eng. Fares HubaishSana’a CorporationTrainerTrainerfareshubaish1f@gmail.com
6Eng. Fares HubaishSana’a CorporationTrainerTrainerfareshubaish1f@gmail.com

Overview of the boreholes used for the water supply

Overview of the boreholes used for the water supply

Table 15. Important risks in the water catchment area

Provide a brief description of the catchment area (Figure 3) (in case of a groundwater scheme of the aquifer and its main recharge area) and an indication of the main hazardous events in the water catchment area (water quality, water availability, landslides, catchment deterioration, expansion of agricultural border) that may affect system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 14). It is important to indicate whether the water utility by itself can do something in the water catchment or that it depends on other actors. This may include for example climate change related problems or over pumping by other actors.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersIS,C=Interruption in supply,Chemical5 = very serious impact1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time3 – 6 Medium risk

Table 16. Important risks in the water source and water intake

Provide a brief description of the water source(s) and water intake(s) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 15). This may include contamination of the source, deteriorating water quality in the source, lack of power sources, falling water table, damages of the intake due to war, flooding or other causes. If several boreholes exist, it may be an option to combine the description of the boreholes that tap the same aquifer, to minimize the length of the report. Yet it is essential that specific risks and hazardous events that are related to specific boreholes, such as high sensitivity to war damages, conflict points, or technical cracks in cover or casing that affect water quality of the borehole. Also provide a brief description of possible water loss that may take place in the water intake or transmission lines (Table 16). Whereas this is not included in the definition of non-revenue water it is important to understand the situation and explore whether this water loss can be prevented as it may make more water available for the water system or for other users. Water losses due to illegal use from the wells field or in the transmission lines for irrigation purposes consumes massive amount of water compared to domestic illegal uses.

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the networkIS,M=Interruption in supply,microbial5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
2The increase in operating expenses due to the increase in the prices of petroleum productsIS = Interruption in supply5=very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
3The possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellIS,M,C=Interruption in supply, Microbial, chemical5=very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time7 – 10 High risk
4The possibility of exposure of the well and the components of the pumping units to dangers and attacks because there is no precinct of the wellIS,M,C=Interruption in supply, Microbial, chemical5=very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time7 – 10 High risk

Overview of the Technical Design of Lc Boreholes

Figure 4. Overview of the Technical Design of Lc Boreholes

Table 17. Water loss in the water intake

Provide a brief description of the transmission main (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, water meter(s) and valves) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 17). This may include: leaking pipes, old pipes, landslides, poor reparations, illegal connections, etc. In case of pumping issues may be lack of fuel, poor electricity supply, inadequate maintenance etc. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place (Table 18).

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Picture of a diagram of the transmission lines

Overview of the Technical Design of Sana’a Lc Boreholes

Table 18 Important risks in the transmission main

Provide a brief description of the transmission main (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, water meter(s) and valves) (Figure 4) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 17). This may include: leaking pipes, old pipes, landslides, poor reparations, illegal connections, etc. In case of pumping issues may be lack of fuel, poor electricity supply, inadequate maintenance etc. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place (Table 18).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The pumping lines pass through sloping areas without any reinforcement/fixing with concrete blocks that may cause the pumping lines to collapse, water loss and pumping stopsIS = Interruption in supply5=very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time7 – 10 high risk
2Water loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flangesM = microbial1 = minimal effect2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time< 3 low risk

Table 19. Water loss in the transmission main

Table 19. Water loss in the transmission main

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

A picture or diagram of the treatment system and chlorination plants

Figure 6. A picture or diagram of the treatment system and chlorination plants

Table 20. Important risks related to the water treatment system​​

Hazard type: M = microbial, C = chemical, P = physical, IS = interruption in supply

Effect: 1 = minimal effect; 3 = serious impact, 5 = very serious impact

Frequency: Rare (1) < 1% of the time, cases, connections; Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time, cases, connections; Likely (3) > 20% of the time, cases, connections

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The chlorination process and water quality control stopped due to lack of chlorine, problems in providing equipment and devices, and the lack of qualified staffM,C=Microbial,Chemical5=Very serious impact3= Likely (3) > 20% of the time, cases> 10 Intolerable risk

Table 21. Water loss in the treatment system

Table 21. Water loss in the treatment system

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Pictures of typical meter situation and storage tanks

Figure 7: Pictures of typical meter situation and storage tanks

Table 22. Important risks in the storage reservoir(s)

Provide a brief description of the storage reservoir(s) (Figure 7) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 21). This may include: leakages, damage because of the war, contamination, lack of maintenance. In case water chlorination is included in the storage reservoir than this also needs to be described (and this may entail problems with the supply of chlorine. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place including water that may be lost through the overflow or water used for cleaning (Table 22).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The storage tank lacks maintenance and there may be leakage from it and the possibility of landslides as a result of the frequent flooding from the tanks due to the absence of an indicator to measure the amount of water in the tank and the absence of an alarm system that stops the pumps when the tank is full and the possibility of pollutants entering the tank through the ventilation holes of the tank, which was Implemented in a way that does not comply with the technical requirementsM,IS=microbial, interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk

Table 23. Water loss in water storage reservoir

Table 23. Water loss in water storage reservoir

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Water Distribution Network Diagram

Figure 8: Diagram of water distribution networks

Table 24. Important risks in the distribution system(s

Provide a brief description of the distribution system(s) (length, diameter, type of material, age, condition, overflow, water meter(s) and valves) and a schematic drawing of the system (Figure 8). Indicate the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 23). This may include: intermittent water supply (rationing), high leakage, illegal connections, inadequate repairs, damage due to the war. Also give an indication of the water loss that may take place and the water pressure distribution (Table 24).

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Increased water losses as a result of leaks resulting of the illegal connection and also due the fractures which may occurred in the surface distribution linesIS = interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
2Water Loss and biological water contamination due to fracture of the surface distribution networkIS,M,= interruption in supply,Microbial,5=Very serious impact2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time(7 – 10) High risk

Table 25. Water loss in water distribution system

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

A picture of the condition of the meter and the household tank

Figure 9: Picture of the case of the meter and the household tank

Table 26. Important risks in Household water storage

Provide a brief description of household water situation (type of water meter, household water storage (size, type of material) (Figure 9) and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect the system performance, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 25). Explore whether risks are gender specific. Give an indication of the water loss that may take place (flowing toilets, plumbing problems, leaking taps, including water that may be lost through the overflow of storage tanks (Table 26).

#Hazardous event (and how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect):
1Water pollution due to the lack of cleanliness and periodic maintenance of household storage tanks, also the subscribers use unsanitary storage tools for water storageM = Microbial5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk

Table 27. Water loss at household level

#Description of water loss Magnitude* l/s and %
1--

Pictures of alternative water sources

Figure 10: Pictures of alternative water sources

Table 28. Important risks in alternative water systems

Provide a brief description of alternative water systems (Figure 10), the level of use by consumers and an indication of the main hazardous events that may affect these systems, the hazards involved, the possible effect, the frequency and the resulting risk (Table 27). This may include for example local water distribution points that provide water to the community which they receive from tankers (paid by humanitarian organizations), local wells and rainwater systems. In the Yemeni context alternative water sources may be an important source for drinking water and may for example entail a risk of spreading cholera, but also may affect water sales of the utility, affecting its financial sustainability and resilience.

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1Water pollution and the spread of epidemics in alternative systems (the water supply system through charitable tanks and vendor tanks) as a result of not applying health and environmental requirementsC,M=microbial,chemical5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk
2Failure to achieve water sufficiency from alternative systems due to the inability of most citizens to obtain sufficient quantities of water from private sector suppliers due to its high CostIS = interruption in supply5=Very serious impact3=Likely (3) > 20% of the time> 10 Intolerable risk

Table 29. Less important risks that were identified

Table 29: Less important risks that were identified

#Hazardous event (how hazard may enter/ affect system) Hazard typeEffectFrequencyRisk levels (frequency x effect)
1The aquifer is chemically polluted as a result of the use of agricultural fertilizersM,C=Microbial,Chemical5=Very serious impact1=Rare (1) < 1% of the time3 – 6 Medium risk
2Water loss in the pumping line as a result of leaks in the pumping line as a result of citizens tampering with the flangesM = microbial1 = Minimal effect2=Moderate (2) 1 – 20% of the time<3 Low risk

Table 30. Intervention to reduce risk of water tariff not covering cost

Intervention to reduce risk of water tariff not covering cost

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1The difficulty of obtaining historical data for the various activities of the branch of the institution and the inability to monitor performance indicators due to the lack of a computerized database (data is still entered manually)6 months18000 $1. Starting of using the Excel program to record data and daily activities 2. Seek assistance from other institutions to develop an administrative, financial and commercial accounting system 3. Developing the system and training the administrative staff on the use of the computerized system and providing office equipment, programs, and accounting and administrative systems necessary to activate the use of the computerized system1.Collection and preparing of data and information 2. Dialogue with international donor organizations and the supporting government agencies to support the corporation and the provision of office equipment, programs, and accounting and administrative systems. 3. Dialogue with international donor organizations to finance the development of the system and train the administrative staff to use the computerized system

Table 31. Intervention to Very high NRW (technical and financial losses)

Intervention to Very high NRW (technical and financial losses)

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1-----

Table 32. Intervention to reduce risk of high fuel prices and frequent fuel crises (Fuel Instability)

Intervention to reduce risk of high fuel prices and frequent fuel crises (Fuel Instability)

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1-----

table 33.Intervention to reduce risk of households water storage tanks

In this section, the proposed actions to improve the system and enhance its resilience are presented in some detail. In this version of the report the activities related to only one of the main risks are presented in table (A2.10.1); in the final version also the other priority actions will be included.

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1The water source is only one well, which causes the inability to cover the subscriber's daily needs , as well as when carrying out maintenance work or there is a malfunction in the pumping unit, the water is completely cut off from the subscribers; as it is the only source of water supply to the network3 months-Dialogue with donors about the importance of enhancing water sources in improving service and its continuity, and trying to obtain financial support to enhance water sources, as the corporation has two wells dug, but have not been operated since they were dug, due to the inability in providing the needs to operate the wells (pumps, extensions and sources energy and construction works)1- Preparing studies and quantities with costs to operate and connect the two wells to the collection tank and from there to the distribution tank. 2- Submitting studies to government agencies and donor organizations, and continuous dialogue with donors to obtain approval for financing the project. 3- Implementation of the project

table 34: Intervention to reduce risk of sewers blockage

In this section, the proposed actions to improve the system and enhance its resilience are presented in some detail. In this version of the report the activities related to only one of the main risks are presented in table (34); in the final version also the other priority actions will be included.

#Problem descriptionCompletionCost ($)Proposed solutionMain activities
1-----